But this technique is also able to overcome other stumbling blocks relating to the amount of ink deposited when writing and the type of paper used, as these variables hamper the dating of a document by means of traditional methods. What is more, the new technique reduces the number of punctures needed to analyse the writing on a document to just one. Determining the age of a document to find out whether it is authentic is a task influenced by the type of paper on which it has been written, the pressure of the stroke -the amount of ink deposited when the writing was done- or even the technique used. Until now, document dating methods have been able to indicate whether the writing was relatively new less than 90 days or older over two years , yet this chronological accuracy is insufficient in certain cases, above all in judicial ones. Each document was produced at different moments using a different ink stroke pressure, factors that may alter the results and lead to dating errors. During the natural ageing process of each sample, which had a known age, the research team analysed the evolution in the various volatile components. When analysing the kinetics involved in its disappearance, the research group established a pattern that links the state of the ink with the time that has elapsed.
Forensics Laboratory Testing
There are typically two different forensic methods for ink dating. With this method the forensic analysis determines the components in the ink, compares them against a library of standards and then allows an opinion regarding the first date that particular ink was manufactured commercially available. The dynamic approach is very useful in determining if a pen ink was placed on a document on its purported date, i.
There are only a handful of forensic scientists capable of performing these tests and laboratories equipped with the proper tools. The proposed tests are minimally invasive, the latter two involving the placement of pinhole perforations in the text, paper and signatures on the Original Document.
reasons it has been long considered that the only reliable way of dating a document was to compare two ink entries from the same pen on the same paper and.
This may be due to aging, illness, injury,emotional changes or many other causes. For this reason examples that were created within two or three years of the questioned document are best for comparison. There can never be too many documents for comparison. There can be too few. Use of objective techniques rather than subjective techniques is valuable for determining when a document was written. In a case involving whether a questioned signature was made by the person whose name was signed, I determined the person did sign the letter.
By using quantitative techniques I determined the letter was signed recently rather than several years earlier according to the date on the letter. This implied the letter was drafted to fabricate evidence in the case. When the opposing side was presented with the evidence they immediately settled the case. The age of documents may also be determined by examination of the paper, ink, toner and other attributes of the document.
Some of these examinations require engaging specialists such as ink chemists, paper experts and others. Learn the Age of Documents. Q9 Consulting. Contact Us email: mikew quality9.
Forensic Document Examination
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INK AGE DETERMINATION (Forensic Ink Dating). Sometimes the date of a written ink entry on its own or else relative to other entries on the same document is.
Comparative analysis of a particular document against other documents from the same source and the same period may be of assistance in determining the relative date of documents or may identify a particular time frame in which a particular organisation used a particular paper type, printer, fax machine etc. There are various libraries of information available concerning when papers were produced but these rely very heavily on the presence of a watermark in the paper.
Comparative analysis of a particular document against other documents from the same source and the same period may also be of assistance or may identify a particular time frame in which a particular organisation used a particular paper type. Similarities in paper type, colour, content, fibres, sizes etc can yield valuable information when determining similarities or differences between papers.
The types of pen, printers etc may be significant in assessing the date of a document and as with many of the dating techniques, the evidence is often more valuable or significant when an anachronism is established as opposed to compliance with other materials, papers etc which may have been available for a prolonged period of time. Other aspects of documents relating to defects in features such on printed or typewritten document, the presence of trash marks or incidental marks on photocopies or laser prints etc may also yield valuable information concerning the dating of the document.
Document Analysis: A Summary of Possibilities – Expert Article
In this article, Forensic Document Examiner, Mark Songer provides an overview of the cases where forensic document examination can be applied, the techniques and technologies used, and standards that exist in the field. In , an intruder broke into the home of an elderly couple living in California. The couple was robbed, beaten, and forced to write checks from their personal account before being murdered.
The suspect denied having anything to do with the murders.
Forensic document examiners are an essential part of the success of the forensic Using alternate light sources to determine non-destructive ink discrimination, to determine authorship of handwritten entries or dating questions concerning.
The visual appearance of inks is only one clue to their composition. Sometimes two inks can look identical to the naked eye but further tests may be able to distinguish between them. Where possible non-destructive tests are used. For example inks can be examined using infra red or ultraviolet reflectance at various wavelengths or using visible light but examining emissions from the ink in the infra red area of the spectrum infra red luminescence.
Our examiners use an instrument known as a VSC HR to carry out non-destructive specialised lighting examinations. Inks may also be distinguished by other more complex chemical tests but these are likely to be destructive to some extent. Differentiating inks can be important in cases where a document is suspected of having been altered.
The Secret Service Uses This Massive Ink Library to Catch Forged Documents
Expert witnesses who are available to consult and testify regarding ink dating may be found here. The consultants found through this page may provide reports on forged checks, signatures, questioned documents, ink analysis, and forensic ink dating, as well as expert witness testimony on these and related issues. You may limit your search for Ink Dating expert witnesses to a specific area by selecting a state from the drop down box.
Featured Experts. Document examinations are provided in the following areas: handwriting, typewriter, photocopies,
Documents Produced with Liquid Ink Jet Technology. Page date, the chemical name, concentration with lot numbers if known and affix a safety sticker.
The chemical analysis of writing and printing inks, as well as paper, can be invaluable when trying to prove whether a document is fraudulent. Ink dating is a highly specialized forensic examination and considered to be one of the most accurate and reliable methods to help determine the age of a document. An ink formulation can be identified to a specific manufacturer to ascertain the first date of commercial availability. If an entry is dated in , but the ink was not available until then the document could not have been created in Inks contain chemical solvents that evaporate and generally go through a drying process that can last up to 2 years.
Comparing Writing Inks. Chemical analysis can be conducted on a suspicious entry to determine if it is consistent with other associated or surrounding writings. Multiple inks can be chemically compared with each other to corroborate or refute whether the entries were created contemporaneously or produced over multiple periods of time. Forensic Analysis of Printers and Copiers. Ink analysis and dating can also be conducted on machine printed document such as inkjet ink and toner from photocopiers, laser printers, and facsimile machines.
Forensic Paper Examination. Gerald M.
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Search our Ink Dating expert witnesses. RESET. Home > Ink Dating Applied Forensics is a 21st Century Forensic Lab specializing in all areas of Questioned.
Follow me:. About the Expert Offices: San Luis Obispo, CA-GFS is a private forensic lab, specializing in ink dating, forensic ink dating, ink age, questioned documents, fraud, forgery, art age determination, ink, paper, handwriting, fingerprints, counterfeiting, piracy, crime scenes, Daubert and court preparation. Full service document laboratory. We offer a first rate and on-call response to any investigative situation that you may encounter.
Our commitment is to provide clients with effective, timely, cost effective services by use of experienced forensic and investigative teams. We are a proud firm. We have successfully completed a myriad of forensic examinations and investigations for our clients, worldwide, for the past 35 years. Stewart has worked for the U.
Government as a forensic scientist for over 25 years. During his career he has worked on many notable cases to include; the Unabomber, numerous accused Nazi war criminals, e. John Demjanjuk, a.
Chemical Ink Dating
There’s more to a piece of paper than meets the eye – and paper analysis can find it. This specialized investigative process extracts historical and physical evidence from documents, photographs, art prints, books, and other paper-based objects. These tools are used, alone or in combination, to characterize the properties of paper in a number of ways.
Forensic Document ExaminerCall Today: () letter was signed recently rather than several years earlier according to the date on the letter. Some of these examinations require engaging specialists such as ink chemists, paper.
Continue to access RSC content when you are not at your institution. Follow our step-by-step guide. Sauzier curtin. This paper presents a study into the potential of visible spectroscopy with chemometrics as an approach to dating blue ball tip inks on paper documents. Analysis of six inks left under various conditions found that the majority of those kept in the dark could still be matched to the source pen after 32 months of ageing.
Conversely, the majority of those exposed to light exhibited rapid spectral changes that continued throughout the 32 month period. Partial least squares regression PLSR was used to generate dating models for inks aged with exposure to light. Evaluation using an external test set found absolute dating to be challenging for these ink deposits within the first 2—6 months of ageing. However, predictive accuracy was found to improve for long-term ageing, with two-year old samples yielding age estimates with a maximum error of 6 months.
This rapid, non-destructive methodology could assist document examiners in the relative ageing or approximate age determination of questioned documents, as well as the identification of document alterations. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.
The hook up ink nampa
Someone trying to sell a baseball allegedly signed by Babe Ruth in the early s, or pass off documents as older than they really are, is up against a serious foe: The United States Secret Service. You might know that the Secret Service is on guard against counterfeit currency. You might not know, however, that it also keeps a one-of-a-kind International Ink Library with more than 11, specific writing ink fingerprints on hand.
Forensic science of dating inks fine tuned. Date: November 10, ; Source: University of the Basque Country; Summary: When did you make your book entries.
Foothill Boulevard. Provides investigation, forensic and litigation support to individuals, companies and firms. Our services include ink age, handwriting, questioned documents, crime scene evaluation, ink analysis, age determination, printer and toner analysis, authenticity, fraud investigations, fingerprints, review of expert witness findings, Daubert and cold case re-investigations. We would be pleased to discuss the aspects of your case with you.
In that role, managed up to scientists, technicians, and support staff in the areas of document analysis, handwriting, fingerprints, trace evidence, audio and video analysis, photography, toolmarks, computer evidence and counterfeit analysis. Worked on behalf of the U. Government as a forensic scientist for over 25 years. During that time worked on many notable cases to include; the Unabomber, numerous accused Nazi war criminals, e.
John Demanjuk, a. Ivan the Terrible, the reinvestigation of the Dr.
Ink and Paper Analysis / Trace Evidence / Questioned Document Examination
Ink, as well. Our services, and handwriting experts. In reaching a particularly challenging forensic.
The information from the forensic examination of inks and paper can be critical to investigations involving Date Created: December 4,
Have questions? Give us a call IPS Testing is able to determine likely age ranges for paper products by using wood fibers, pulping chemistry, paper additives and surface treatments to serve as dating markers. Our experienced fiber science team, led by Walter Rantanen, has developed an international reputation for paper and document forensics. While exact age dating of papers is not possible, the process is often able to exclude samples as being made in the time period of question.
Walter Rantanen has developed a large database of paper with known ages.